The Mongol Empire

Mongol Empire was established on a strong foundation of written laws, called yasa which Genghis Khan implemented using Uighuritic script.

According to the historians, one of the most important Laws was, "All men are to believe in one God, Creator of Heaven and earth". Other laws forbade adultery and exempted clergy, whether Christian, Buddhist, or Shamanist, from taxation. Interesting?

Genghis Khan's first campaigns were against Tangut dynasty who controlled Silk Road of northwest China. Next he subdued Manchurian dynasty, northern China. The Mongols captured the Chin capital (modern Beijing).

Then Genghis sent his oldest son Zuchi in 1216 to the west who conquered Merkits. Zuchi encountered Khwazmenian Sultan who failed with 400,000 against much smaller Mongol army and retrieved back to Samarkand.

Historians say that Genghis Khan was forced to fight with Islamic west, Khwarezm and Persia when his 450 envoys sent to Khwarezm Shah with generous gifts were killed and robbed by a greedy Inaljiuk Gair Khan who later faced a horrible death.

In 1219, Genghis led his main army westward to Kara-Khitai kingdom, Naiman and Khwarazmian empire. The capitals, Baghdad or Bukhara, Nisaphur of Persia fell under the Mongol war-machine. The cities surrendered were spared but those who challenged Mongols were utterly destroyed.

After the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, his sons and grandsons expanded Mongol Empire even more. He had four sons: Juchi, Chagatai, Ogetai and Tolui. As you may know, Zuchi died the same year before his father but his son, Batu rapidly conquered eastern Europe till the death if Ogetai Khan and it became known as Golden Horde.

Ogetai's kingdom included whole central Asia, from eastern Golden Horde to western boarder of Mongolia, to the northern India in the south. The third son, Ogetai became the second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. According to Mongol traditions the youngest son, Tolui, was given the heartland of Mongolia with the capital of Karakorum.

The fourth Great Khan, after Kuyuk Khan, Mongke Khan was a descendant of Tolui and his Christian princess Sorkaktani. Their second son, Hulegu, conquered Persia all the way to Syria, only stoped by the death of Great Mongke Khan. The third son, Khublai, became an emperor of Mongol China which stretched all the way to Japan to the east and south.

During the reign of Mongol Empire the East and the West was connected safely through the Silk Road which went through Mongol Persia, Mongol Russia to all the way to Mongol China. This was the time of great prosperity and religious freedom.

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