At 1,564,116 km², Mongolia is the world's nineteenth-largest country. It is significantly larger than the next-largest country, Peru. It is more than two times larger than the U.S. state of Texas and slightly larger than Spain, France and Germany combined.
The geography of Mongolia is varied with the Gobi Desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Much of Mongolia consists of steppes. The highest point in Mongolia is the Khuiten Peak in the Tavan bogd massif in the far west at 4,374 m. The basin of the lake Uvs Nuur, shared with Tuva Republic in Russia, is a natural World Heritage Site.
Most of the country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter, with January averages dropping as low as -30°C. The country is also subject to occasional harsh climatic conditions known as zud /natural disaster resulting from excessive snow/.
Ulaanbaatar has the lowest average temperature of any national capital in the world. Mongolia is high, cold, and windy. It has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers, during which most of its annual precipitation falls.
The country averages 257 cloudless days a year, and it is usually at the center of a region of high atmospheric pressure. Precipitation is highest in the north and lowest in the south, which receives 10 to 20 centimeters annually. The extreme south is the Gobi, some regions of which receive no precipitation at all in most years.
Mongolian nature: Rare flower Edelweiss in the world
Edelweiss flower, which is a symbol of ever-living, is one of the rarest flowers in the world. Growing on steppe and mountains of our country, the edelweiss is viewed traditionally by Mongolians as eternal symbol.
It grows rarely at the foot of high mountains such as the Alps from European countries. Flowering stalks of edelweiss can grow to a size of 3–20 cm.
The leaves appear woolly because of the covering of white hairs. The flowers are felted and woolly with white hairs, with characteristic bloom consisting of five to six small yellow flower heads surrounded by leaflets in star form. The flowers are
in bloom between July and September. It is unequally distributed and prefers rocky limestone places at 2000–2900 m altitude.
It is not toxic, and has been used traditionally in folk medicine as a remedy against abdominal and respiratory diseases. Edelweiss is a protected plant in many countries, including Bulgaria, Croatia, Switzerland, France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria and Romania.
Mongolian nature: Too many volcanoes
There are a total of over 300 dormant volcanoes in our country. The volcano, which locates in one place in the greatest numbers, is in a territory of Sukhbaatar aimag, Mongolia. Over 200 dormant volcanoes were registered through only Dariganga soum and of them, the most well-known volcano is Altan-Ovoo.
Mongolian nature: A neolithic forge
Locates in the end of the Arts Bogd 40 km distance from the center of Bogd soum, Ovorkhangai aimag, a territory, so-called Mukhar bulag /Blind springs/, is very special from other historical places of Mongolia. There is a neolithic forge that covers eight km wide and 12 km long of square on the Mukhar bulag. There are many kinds of laminas and scrapers. Thus, it is included in ancient people’s cultural heritage of not only Mongolia but also the world.
Mongolian nature: Spa
Mongolia is admired with its mineral springs. However, it was etherized in songs; spas in some places are being destroyed by human hands. But there are over 50 hot spas in our country and Shargaljuut is the place with the hottest and the most spring spas and founts.
The most of founds is 60-93 degree hot. It locates in 58 km distance from the center of Bayankhongor aimag and in 678 km distance from Ulaanbaatar.
From 1958, the Shargaljuut spa was equipped and has been used and sanatoriums were established surrounding it.
Mongolian nature: The largest river
Although, Selenge river doesn’t overflow its beach, it is the largest river in Mongolia. It has 447 thousand km² square with its tributaries.
The Selenga is the river in Mongolia and Russia. Its source rivers are the Ideriin gol and the Delgermoron. It flows into Lake Baikal and has a length of 992 km. The Selenga is the headwater of the Yenisei-Angara River.